Epsilon (AS level) Biology | Cells | Lesson plan


Sep 15 - Sep 28 (2 weeks)


  • Cell theory
  • Cell structure and ultrastructure
  • Comparison between plant and animal cells
  • comparison between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
  • Cell measurements

Instructional objectives

Students should be able to:

  • compare the structure of typical animal and plant cells by making temporary preparations of live material and using photomicrographs
  • calculate the linear magnifications of drawings, photomicrographs and electron micrographs
  • use an eyepiece graticule and stage micrometer scale to measure cells.
  • describe and interpret electron micrographs and drawings of typical animal and plant cells as seen with the electron microscope
  • recognise the following cell structures and outline their functions:

cell surface membrane
nucleus, nuclear envelope and nucleolus
rough endoplasmic reticulum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi body (Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex)
mitochondria (including small circular DNA)
ribosomes (80S in the cytoplasm and 70S in chloroplasts and mitochondria)
centrioles and microtubules
chloroplasts (including small circular DNA)
cell wall
large permanent vacuole and tonoplast of plant cells

  • state that ATP is produced in mitochondria and chloroplasts and outline the role of ATP in cells
  • outline key structural features of typical prokaryotic cells as seen in a typical bacterium (including: unicellular, 1-5┬Ám diameter, peptidoglycan cell walls, lack of organelles surrounded by double membranes, naked circular DNA, 70S ribosomes)
  • compare and contrast the structure of typical prokaryotic cells with typical eukaryotic cells
  • outline the key features of viruses as non-cellular structures (limited to protein coat and DNA/RNA)

Teaching Process

  • Students are mostly aware of the structures but not the functions. So emphasis would be on the functions.
  • Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells would be emphasized


  • Identifying microscopic slides of organisms.
  • Measuring cell size using eyepiece graticule and stage micrometer

Suggested reading / References

Assignments / Evaluation

  • written test
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