11 NIOS Chemistry Annualplan Vinay

The following plan is for a period of 2 years. Each topic will be dealt at different depths in both the years

# July

## Measurements in Chemistry

• A simple idea of basic SI units
• Derived SI unit
• Numerical Problems

## Mole Concept

• Counting and weighting of atoms and molecules
• Molar quantities
• Numerical problems

## Chemical Stoichiometry

• Empirical and molecular formula
• Chemical formula and percentage composition (chemical formula from percentage composition and vice versa)
• Mass relationship in chemical reactions (mole ratio from a balanced chemical equation, mole calculation)
• Limiting reagent concept and percentage yield.
• Numerical problems

## Atomic Structure

• Fundamental particles of an atom
• Scattering of particles-Rutherford’s experiment
• Discovery of neutron
• Discharge of electricity through gases
• Rutherford’s nuclear model
• Visible spectrum
• Line spectra of H-atom; Bohr model (no derviation)
• Wave-particle duality
• The uncertainty principle
• The wave mechanical model-orbitals (probability picture may be emphasized), quantum number and Pauli’s exclusion principle
• Aufbau Principle-electronic configuration of atoms.
• Hund’s rule

## Learning Outcomes

• state the need of SI units;
• list base SI units;
• explain the relationship between mass and number of particles;
• define Avogadro’s constant and state its significance;
• calculate the molar mass of different elements and compounds and
• define molar volume of gases at STP.
• define empirical and molecular formulae;
• differentiate between empirical and molecular formulae;
• calculate percentage by mass of an element in a compound and also work out empirical formula from the percentage composition;
• establish relationship between mole, mass and volume;
• calculate the amount of substances consumed or formed in a chemical reaction using a balanced equation and mole concept, and
• Explain that the amount of limiting reagent present initially limits the amount of the products formed.
• recognize the fundamental particles of atom;
• describe Rutherford’s experiment and explain its results;
• list and define the characteristic parameters of electromagnetic radiation;
• discuss line spectrum of hydrogen;
• explain Bohr’s postulates and discuss his model;
• draw energy level diagram of hydrogen atom showing different series of lines in its spectrum;
• explain wave particle duality of matter and radiation;
• formulate Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle;
• explain the need for quantum mechanical model;
• draw probability pictures of an electron in an atom;
• list quantum numbers and discuss their significance;
• draw the shapes of s, p and d orbitals;
• recognize nodal plane;
• explain Pauli’s exclusion principle;
• define Aufbau principle and
• explain Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity.

# August

## The Chemical Bond -I

• Why do atoms combine (potential energy diagram)
• Formation of ionic bonds, characteristics of covalent compounds, partial ionic character of covalent bonds, coordinate covalent bond.

## The Chemical Bond – II

• Shapes of molecules. An introduction to VSEPR theory (up to 6 electron pairs only)
• Hybridization of atomic orbitals, hybrid orbitals (sp, sp2 , sp3 )
• Multiple covalent bonds

## Learning Outcomes

• explain the formation of bond in terms of potential energy diagram and octet rule;
• list different types of bonds;
• define ionic bond and cite some examples;
• write Lewis structures of some simple molecules;
• llst the characteristics of ionic compounds;
• define covalent bond and cite some examples;
• list the characteristics of covalent compounds;
• state valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory;
• predict the geometry of molecules with the help of VSEPR theory;
• explain the hybridisation of atomic orbitals involving s, p and d orbitals and illustrate with examples;
• tabulate the geometry of some molecules showing sp, sp2, sp3, dsp2, and dsp3 hybridisation;
• explain the formation of sigma and pi bonds in CH4, C2H4 and C2H2;
• explain molecular orbital theory;
• write the molecular orbital configuration of H2, N2, O2and F2 molecules;
• define bond length and bond order and relate them and
• explain hydrogen bonding with the help of examples.

# September

## Behavior of Gases

• The gaseous state
• Boyle’s Law
• Charles’ law-kelvin Temperature Scale
• Dalton’s law of partial pressures
• Ideal gas equation
• The kinetic molecular theory of gases
• Graham’s low of diffusion
• Real gases-deviations from ideal gas behaviour
• Liquifaction of gases
• Numerical problems

## Liquids and Solids

• The liquid state
• The solid state

## Solutions

• Solution, solute and solvent
• Concentration of solutions, - molarity molality, normality, mole fraction and mass percentage
• Types of solutions
• Raoult’s law
• Ideal and non-ideal solutions
• Colligate properties of solutions simple numerical problems.
• Simple numerical problems

## The Colloidal Solution

• True solution, colloidal solution and a suspension
• Classification of colloids
• Preparation of colloidal solutions
• Properties of colloidal solutions
• Properties of colloidal solutions
• Applications of colloids

## Some Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry

• System : Isolated, closed and open system
• Processes; isothermal, adiabatic, reversible and irreversible
• Standard state of a substance
• Exothermic and endothermic reactions
• Thermochemical equations
• Concept of internal energy and enthalpy change, relationship between rH and rE, first law of thermodynamics
• Standard enthalpy of reactions
• Enthalpy changes during a reaction: enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of neutralization
• Hess’s law and its applications
• Bond enthalpy
• Numerical Problems

## Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions

• Concept of entropy, entropy change in a system and spontaneity
• Relationship between G,H and S
• Free energy change and spontaneity of a Chemical reaction
• Standard free energy of formation
• Free energy change and chemical equilibrium
• Numerical problems

## Learning Outcomes

• differentiate between the three states of matter - solid, liquid and gas;
• list the characteristic properties of gases;
• state the gas laws (Boyle’s law, Charle’s law and Avogadro’s law) and express them mathematically;
• draw the p-V, p-1/V, p-pV and V-T graphs;
• interpret the effect of temperature and pressure on the volume of a gas from the graph;
• derive the ideal gas equation from the gas laws;
• state the Dalton’s law of partial pressure and explain its significance;
• state Graham’s law of diffusion;
• state the postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of gases;
• explain the Maxwell’s distribution of velocities;
• differentiate between urms, ump and uav;
• explain the deviation of real gases from ideal behaviour in term of compressibility factor;
• state the van der Waals equation and explain the significance of van der Waals constants
• explain the liquifaction of gases with the help of Andrews curves.
• explain the properties of liquids in terms of their structure (molecular arrangement and intermolecular forces);
• differentiate between evaporation and boiling;
• define vapour pressure of a liquid and correlate it with its boiling point;
• define surface tension and explain the effect of various factors on it;
• explain the consequences of surface tension and
• define viscosity of a liquid and correlate it with intermolecular forces.
• explain the nature of solid state;
• explain the properties of solids in terms of packing of particles and intermolecular attractions;
• explain the melting point of a solid;
• differentiate between crystalline and amorphous solids;
• classify the crystalline solids according to the forces operating between the constituent particles;
• explain different types of packing in the solids;
• define coordination number;
• define unit cell;
• explain different types of unit cells;calculate the number of particles in simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body centered cubic unit cells;
• correlate the radius ratio with the structure of solids;
• explain the structure of simple ionic compounds and
• explain Frenkel and Schottky defects.
• identify the components of different types of solution;
• express the concentration of solutions in different ways;
• list different types of solutions;
• state Henry’s law;
• define vapour pressure;
• state and explain Raoult’s law for solutions;
• define ideal solutions;
• give reasons for non-ideal behaviour of solutions;
• state reasons for positive and negative deviations from ideal behaviour;
• explain the significance of colligative properties;
• state reasons for the elevation of boiling point and depression in freezing point of solutions;
• explain the abnormal colligative properties;
• define osmosis and osmotic pressure;
• define Van’t Hoff factor;
• correlate the degree of dissociation of solute and
• solve numerical problems
• explain the difference between true solution, colloidal solution and suspension;
• identify phases of colloidal solution;
• classify colloidal solutions;
• describe methods of preparation of colloids;
• explain some properties of colloidal solutions;
• recognise the difference between gel and emulsion and,
• cite examples of the application of colloids in daily life.
• define the commonly used terms in thermodynamics;
• differentiate between exothermic and endothermic reactions;
• explain the first law of thermodynamics;
• explain internal energy;
• define enthalpy and enthalpy change;
• state the relationship between enthalpy change and internal energy change;
• define enthalpy of formation, enthalpy of neutralisation and enthalpy of combustion;
• state the relationship between enthalpy of reaction and enthalpies of formation of reactants and products;
• solve numerical problems based on the enthalpy changes;
• state Hess’s law;
• calculate enthalpy of a reaction using Hess’s law;
• define bond enthalpy and bond dissociation enthalpy and
• calculate enthalpy of a reaction using bond enthalpy data
• define entropy;
• recognise that entropy change in a system is given by delta S = qrev/T
• state entropy criterion for a spontaneous process delta Suniverse> 0 and at equilibrium delta Suniverse = 0
• state third law of thermodynamics;
• state the relationship between G, H and S ;
• derive the relation delta Gsystem = T delta Ssystem;
• state Gibbs energy criterion for spontaneous process 1) delta G < 0 for a spontaneous process 2) delta G = 0 at equilibrium 3) delta G > 0 for a non-spontaneous process
• define standard Gibbs energy of formation of a substance;
• relate the standard Gibbs energy change with the equilibrium constant and
• solve numerical problems.

# October

## Chemical Equilibrium

• Reversible reactions
• Types of equilibrium system
• Equilibria in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems
• Law of chemical equilibrium
• Relationship between Kc and Kp
• Factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s Principle
• Numerical problems

## Ionic Equilibria

• Acid-base equilibrium
• Ionisation constant of weak acids and bases
• Ionization of water
• pH value
• buffer solutions
• solubility equilibrium, solubility product and its applications
• numerical problems

## electrochemistry

• Electrolysis
• Electrical conductivity of electrolytic solutions
• Electrochemical cells
• Standard electrode potential
• Electrochemical series and its applications
• Effect of concentration on electrode potentials by Nernst equation
• Relationship between emf and free energy
• Numerical problems

## Learning Outcomes

• differentiate between static and dynamic equilibrium;
• identify and differentiate between reversible and irreversible reactions;
• explain the reversible reaction occuring at the equilibrium state;
• list and explain characteristics of equilibrium state;
• apply the law of equilibrium and write expression of equilibrium constant for different types of equilibria, namely physical, chemical, homogeneous and heterogenous;
• state and derive the relation between Kc and Kp and carry out some calculations involving them and
• list the factors which affect the state of equilibrium and state and apply Le-Chatelierprinciple.
• understand oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer concept;
• calculate oxidation number (ON) of an atom in a molecule or ion;
• balance the chemical equation for redox reaction;
• explain electrolytic conduction, conductance and molar conductivity;
• describe the effect of dilution on conductivity and molar conductivity of an electrolyte;
• differentiate between electrolytic and Galvanic cell;
• state standard electrode potential and use it for calculation of standard electrode potential of a cell;
• explain standard Hydrogen electrode;
• describe electrochemical series and its application;
• state effect of concentration on electrode potential (Nernst equation);
• solve numericals based on Nernst equation and
• find relationship between emf and Gibbs energy change.

# November

## Rates of Chemical Reactions

• Rate of a Reaction
• Expressions for reactions rates
• Factors affecting rate of reaction
• Rate law
• Order of a reaction
• First order reaction
• Half life period
• Effect of temperature on reaction rate
• Catalysis
• Numerical problems

## Period Table and Variation in Atomic Properties

• Early attempts of classification
• Long form of periodic table
• Variation in atomic properties

## Learning Outccomes

• recongise the need for classification of elements;
• recall the earlier attempts on classification of elements;
• define modern periodic law;
• name the elements with atomic number greater than 100 according to IUPAC nomenclature;
• Co-relate the sequence of arrangements of elements in the periodic table with the electronic configuration of the elements;
• recall the designations of the groups (1-18) in the periodic table;
• locate the classifiction of elements into s-, p-, d- and f- blocks of the periodic table and
• explain the basis of periodic variations of (a) atomic size (b) ionic size (c) ionization enthalpy (d) electron gain enthalpy within a group or a period.
• explain the rate of a chemical reaction;
• differentiate between average rate and instantaneous rate;
• correlate the average and instantaneous rates with changes in concentrations of various reactants and products;
• explain the factors that affect the rate of a reaction;
• define rate law and rate constant;
• define order and molecularity of a reaction;
• distinguish the order from molecularity;
• derive rate law for first order reaction and define half life period for first order reaction;
• derive a relationship between half life and rate constant for first order reaction;
• solve numericals on the relationships;
• explain the effect of temperature on reaction rate, and
• explain Arrhenius equation and activation energy.
• distinguish between physical adsorption and chemisorption;
• list and explain the various factors that affect adsorption;
• state Freundlich adsorption isotherm mathematically and explain it;
• explain Langmuir isotherm;
• define catalysis;
• distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, and
• explain the role of activation energy in catalysis.

# December and January

## General characteristics of Main Group Elements

• Variation in properties among s and p block elements with respect to (i) size (ii) ionization energies (iii) electron affinities (iv) electronegativity (v) metallic behaviour, variation in the nature of their (i) hydribes (ii) oxides and halides, diagonal relationship between elements (Li and Mg only)

## General Characteristics of Transition Elements

• Electronic configuration, properties of d-block elements (first series only) in terms of their (i) variable oxidation states, (ii) magnetic properties (iii) colour of their ions and compounds (iv) complex formation and (v) catalytic properties.

## Main-Group Elements and Their Compounds – 1

• Hydrogen
• Alkali and alkaline earth metals
• Boron and aluminium
• Carbon and silicon

## Main-Group Elements and Their Compounds – II

• Nitrogen and phosphorus
• Oxygen and sulphur
• Halogens and noble gases

## Chemistry of some Important Compounds of Transition Elements

• Preparation, properties and application of some important compounds: KMnO4, K2Cr2O7,K4Fe2(CN6) CuSO4 5H2O Calamine

## General Metallurgical Principles

• Occurrence of metals
• Important ores of some common elements: Na, Al, Sn, Pb,Ti, Fe, Cu, Ag and Zn
• General principles involved in the isolation of metals from their ores and refining taking examples from these metals)

## Learning Outcomes

• differentiate between minerals and ores;
• recall the occurrence of metals in native form and in combined form as oxides, sulphides, carbonates and chlorides;
• list the names and formulae of some common ores of Na, Al, Sn, Pb ,Ti, Fe, Cu, Ag and Zn;
• list the occurrence of minerals of different metals in India;
• list different steps involved in the extraction of metals;
• list and explain various methods for concentration of ores (gravity separation, magnetic separation, froth floatation and chemical method);
• explain different metallurgical operations : roasting, calcination and smelting with suitable examples;
• choose the reducing agent for a given ore;
• differentiate between flux and slag, and
• explain different methods for refining of metals : poling, liquation, distillation and electrolytic refining.
• explain the unique position of hydrogen in the periodic table;
• compare and contrast the properties of different isotopes of hydrogen;
• recall the various physical and chemical properties and uses of hydrogen with chemical reactions;
• explain the structure of water molecule and ice;
• list the uses of heavy water;
• list the different methods of preparation of hydrogen peroxide;
• list oxidizing and reducing properties of hydrogen peroxide with at least two examples of each;
• list the uses of hydrogen peroxide;
• recall the names and formulae of some common ores of alkali and alkaline earth metals;
• recall the electronic configuration of alkali and alkaline earth metals;
• write reactions of alkali and alkaline earth metals with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water;
• explain the trend of basic nature of oxides and hydroxides and
• explain the solubility and thermal stability of their carbonates and sulphates.
• describe the general mode of occurrence of these elements in nature;
• recall the electronic configurations of the p-block elements;
• explain the variations in atomic and physical properties such as (i) atomic and ionic sizes; (ii) ionization enthalpy; (iii) electronegativity; (iv) electron-gain enthalpy; (v) metallic and non-metallic behaviours along the period and in a group of the periodic table;
• correlate the properties of the elements and their compounds with their positions in the periodic table;
• explain the anomalous properties of the first element in each group of this block and
• explain inert pair effect.
• describe the methods of preparation of boric acid, borax, diborane and boron trifluoride;
• explain the structure of diborane,boric acid and boron trifluoride;
• list the uses of borax, boric acid and boron trifluoride;
• list examples of double salts;
• describe the preparation and uses of aluminium trichloride and potash alum;
• explain the structure of aluminium trichloride;
• list the allotropes of crystalline carbon;
• compare the structures of diamond and graphite;
• explain the structure and properties of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and silicon dioxide;
• compare hydrolytic behaviour of carbon tetrachloride and silicon tetrachloride;
• describe preparation and uses of silicon carbide;
• explain the processes for manufacture of ammonia and nitric acid;
• list the properties and uses of ammonia and nitric acid;
• explain nitrogen fixation: natural and industrial and
• list a few nitrogenous, phosphatic and mixed fertilizers with their importance.
• classify oxides into acidic, basic and amphoteric types;
• describe the manufacture of sulphuric acid;
• recall the preparation, properties and uses of ozone;
• recall the characteristics of hydrogen halides (HF, HCl);
• list the oxides and oxoacids of chlorine;
• compare the acidic behaviour of oxoacids of chlorine;
• write the general molecular formulae of interhalogen compounds;
• discuss the structures of interhalogen compounds;
• list a few chloro fluoro carbons and explain their uses and their effect on environment;
• explain the unreactive nature of noble gases;
• recall the preparation of xenon fluorides and oxides, and
• illustrate the structures of XeF2, XeF4, XeF6, XeO3and XeO4
• define transition metals and write their electronic configuration;
• list the general and characteristic properties of the transition elements;
• explain the properties of 3d transition series: metallic character, variable oxidation state, variation in atomic and ionic radii, catalytic properties, coloured ions, complex formation, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds and alloy formation;
• recall the preparation of potassium permanganate from pyrolusite ore;
• write the chemical equations illustrating the oxidizing properties of KMnO4 in acidic, alkaline and neutral media (acidic: FeSO4, SO2, alkaline: KI and ethene, neutral: H2S and MnSO4);
• recall the preparation of potassium dichromate from chromite ore;
• write the oxidation reactions of potassium dichromate with SO2 and ferrous sulphate in acidic medium;
• write electronic configuration of lanthanoides (4f-elements) and
• explain lanthanoide contraction.
• state the postulates of Werner’s theory;
• define ligands, coordination number and coordination sphere;
• name simple complexes by IUPAC system;
• explain valance bond theory;
• apply VB theory to explain hybridization, shape and magnetic behavior of the following complexes [Fe(CN)6]4– , [Fe(CN)6]3– , [Cr(NH3)6]2+ , [NiCl4]2- , [Ni(CO)4] and [Ni(CN)4]2– and
• explain the applications of coordination compounds in extraction of metals, medicine and qualitative analysis.

# February and March

## General Principles, Classification and Nomenclature

• Classification
• Type of bond fission : Homolytic, Heterolytic
• Inductive effect
• Types of reactions: substitution and addition (electrophilic and nucleophilic), elimination an rearrangement
• Functional groups : definition and types
• IUPAC nomenclature of mono functional organic compounds
• Isomerism

## Hydrocarbons

• Definition and types of hydrocarbons
• IUPAC nomenclature

## Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons – II

• Preparation of hydrocarbons
• Physical properties of hydrocarbons

## Preparation and Properties of Hydrocarbons – II

• Chemical properties of hydrocarbons (addition, substitution, oxidation)

## Compounds of Carbon Containing halogens (Haloalkanes and haloarenes)

• IUPAC Nomenclature of halogen compounds
• Preparation of haloalkanes and haloarenes
• Physical and chemical properties

## Compounds of Carbon Containing Oxygen

• Different types of oxygen containing compounds ( alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters)
• IUPAC nomenclature of oxygen containing compounds
• Preparation and properties of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones and acids.

## Compounds of Carbon Containing Nitrogen

• Types of compounds-amides, animes, nitro compounds
• IUPAC nomenclature of amides, amines and nitro compounds
• Preparation and properties of primary aromatic and aliphatic amines.

## Learning Outcomes

• name various types of organic compounds according to IUPAC system;
• distinguish between different types of bond fission;
• explain different types of reactions: substitution, addition, elimination and molecular rearrangements;
• identify nuclophiles and electrophiles;
• explain electronic effects in a covalent bond such as inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance, hyperconjugation and steric hindrance, and
• explain structural isomerism and stereoisomerism.
• list different methods of preparation of alkanes;
• explain the reasons for variation in physical properties of alkanes;
• describe different chemical properties of alkanes;
• list different methods of preparation of alkenes;
• explain the physical properties of alkenes;
• describe the chemical properties of alkenes;
• list different methods of preparation of alkynes;
• explain physical and chemical properties of alkynes;
• discuss the cause of greater reactivity of alkenes and alkynes over alkanes;
• distinguish alkanes, alkenes and alkynes;
• list various fractions obtained by destructive distillation of coal;
• explain the stability of various organic compounds using resonance;
• describe methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical properties of benzene, * list various uses of hydrocarbons.
• define haloalkanes and haloarenes;
• name haloalkanes and haloarenes according to IUPAC rules;
• explain methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical properties and uses of haloalkanes and haloarenes;
• distinguish between haloalkanes and haloarenes, and
• explain the preparation, properties and uses of some important polyhalogen compounds.
• Classify alcohols as primary, secondary or tertiary;
• Name simple alcohols according to IUPAC system of nomenclature;
• List general methods of preparation of alcohols;
• Discuss the properties of alcohols in the light of their structure;
• Explain various reactions exhibited by alcohols to give other categories of organic compounds;
• Give the names of common phenolic compounds;
• Describe the laboratory and industrial methods of preparation of phenols;
• Explain the greater acidity of phenols as compared to alcohols;
• Discuss the reactions of phenols;
• Name ethers according to the IUPAC system of nomenclature;
• Describe the general methods of preparation of ethers and
• Explain the important reactions of ethers.
• give IUPAC names of aldehydes and ketones;
• describe the general methods of preparation of aldehydes and ketones;
• discuss the trends in physical properties of the aldehydes and ketones in the light of the polar nature of the carbonyl group;
• explain important reactions exhibited by aldehydes and ketones;
• distinguish between aldehydes and ketones on the basis of certain reactions and tests based on them;
• give IUPAC names of carboxylic acids;
• explain general methods of preparation of carboxylic acids;
• discuss the physical properties and their trends for simple monocarboxylic acids;
• describe important reactions exhibited by carboxylic acids;
• explain the preparation and some interconversion reactions of carboxylic acid derivatives, and
• highlight the importance of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids.
• classify amines as primary, secondary, or tertiary amines;
• write the IUPAC names of amines and nitro compounds;
• describe the general methods of preparation, properties and uses of primary amines and nitro compounds and
• explain the relative basicities of primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic amines and compare them with the basicities of ammonia and aromatic amines.
• identify and define different types of biomolecules;
• describe the important structural features of biomolecules;
• classify carbohydrates, proteins and lipids on the basis of their structure & functions;
• give the composition of proteins and nucleic acids;
• explain the difference between DNA and RNA;
• differentiate between oils and fats;
• explain the action of enzymes and their characteristic features and
• list the functions of biomolecules in biological systems.

# April

(The following modules are optional. Depending on what modules the students choose, the learning outcomes for those modules will be updated)

## Soil and Plant Nutrients

• Simple idea of soil
• Types of soil
• Soil Texture
• Soil Reaction
• Plant Nutrients

## Manures and Fertilizers

• Essential Plant Nutrients
• Types of manures
• Compost production
• Vermicompost and vermiculture
• Types of fertilizers
• Methods of using fertilizers

## Pests and Pesticides

• Pests
• Pest control
• Pesticides
• Pest management

## Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth Hormones

• Nitrogen cycle
• Nitrogen fixation
• Bio fertilizers
• Plant growth hormones

## Carbohydrates

• Natural sources of carbohydrates
• Monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide
• Structure of carbohydrates
• Biological significance of carbohydrates

## Proteins

• Simple idea of proteins
• Classification and structure of proteins
• Amino acids

## Fats and Lipids

• Lipids
• Oils and fats

• Nucleic Acid
• DNA and RNA

## Enzymes

• A simple idea of enzymes
• Classification of enzymes
• Uses of enzymes

## Environment and its pollution

• Idea of environment
• Threats to environment
• Pollutants

## Atmosphere, Oxygen and air Pollution

• Composition of air
• Respiration, photosynthesis and decay cycle
• Air pollutants
• Green house effect
• Global warming
• Depletion of ozone layer
• Acid rain

## Water Pollution

• Water resources
• Water pollutants
• Biological oxygen demand
• Prevention of water pollution
• Legislative measures for prevention of water pollution

## Heavy Metal Contamination

• Heavy metal
• Effects of heavy metal contamination
• Preventive measures

• Preventive measures
• Regulations regarding safety

# Experiments

The following are the list of experiments for a period of 2 years. The appropriate experiment will be chosen to compliment the theory classes.

1.
(i) General safety measures with special reference to safe handling of chemicals.
(ii) Acquaintance with boring of glass tubes, sealing of apparatus, filtration, distillation, crystallization, preparation calibration, cleaning of glass apparatus and use of burner, etc.)
(iii) Measurement of volume, length, mass and density and common errors therein.

2. Preparation, collection and study of some important physical and chemical properties of at least three gases, one each from the following groups :
(a) Hydrogen and oxygen
(b) Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide
(c) Chlorine, hydrogen chloride, and sulfur dioxide

3. Preparation of dilute solutions of known concentration of sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid.

4. Study of interaction of metals (any four) with salt solution and arranging them according to their activity (to form activity series). Metals and salts may be selected from the following.
Mg, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu and Al and their salts.

5.
(a) Determination of pH of following substances by using a universal indicator solution or pH papers.
(i) Salt solution
(ii) Acids and bases of different dilutions
(iii) Vegetable and fruit juices
(b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in base of weak acids and weak bases by above method (specific examples of CH3COOH and CH3COONa and NH4OH and NH4OH and NH4CI may be taken).

6. Determination of melting point of a solid substance or low melting point (below 1000C) by glass capillary tube method (Paraffin oil may be used as bath).

7. Study of solubility of solid substances in water at different temperatures and plotting of a solubility curve.

8. Study of the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/decreasing the concentration of their ions.

9. Study of:
(a) The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction between sodium thio-sulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.

10. Separation of colored substances by paper chromatography and comparison of their Rf values.
(a) a mixture of red and blue ink or a black ink.
(b) Juice of a flower or grass.

11. Detection of nitrogen, sulfur and halogens in an organic compound (combinations of halogens to be avoided). Not more than two of the above elements should be present in the given organic compound.

12. Study of simple reactions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs.

13. Preparation of soap by using different oils and its comparison with the market soap by determining the foaming capacity and cleaning effect.

14. Use of chemical balance to be demonstrated.
(a) preparation of solution of oxalic acid and ferrous ammonium sulphate of known molarity by weighing (non-evaluative)
(b) A study of (i) acid-base and (ii) redox titrations (single titration only). (both the solutions to be provided).
(i) Oxalic acid and sodium hydroxide
(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate and potassium permanganate.

15. Elementary qualitative analysis of a salt involving detection of one cationic and one anionic species from the following groups. (Salts insoluble in hydrochloric acid excluded).
Cations:Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ , Ca2+, NH4+
Anions: CO32-, S2-, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-

16.Functional groups in organic compounds
(i) Test of un saturation
(ii) Test for Carboxylic, phenolic, aldehydic and ketonic groups.

The complete NIOS text including experiments can be availed in the below link
http://www.nios.ac.in/online-course-material/sr-secondary-courses/Chemistry-%28313%29/english-medium.aspx