2015-16 10 Biology Annualplan Vasantha

Annual plan for the year 2015-16
June
Inheritance- Inheritance,Chromosomes, genes and proteins and mitosis
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to
• Define inheritance as the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation
• Define chromosome as a thread-like structure of DNA, carrying genetic information in the form of genes
• Define gene as a length of DNA that codes for a protein
• Define allele as a version of a gene
• Describe the function of chromosome
• Describe the inheritance of sex in humans with reference to XX and XY chromosomes
• Define mitosis as nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells (details of stages are not required)
• State the role of mitosis in growth, repair of damaged tissues, replacement of cells and asexual reproduction.
• State that the exact duplication of chromosomes occurs before mitosis
• State that during mitosis, the copies of chromosomes separate, maintaining the chromosome number (details of stages of mitosis are not required)
• Describe stem cells as unspecialised cells that divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells that can become specialised for specific functions.
• Explain that the sequence of bases in a gene is the genetic code for putting together amino acids in the correct order to make a specific protein (knowledge of the details of nucleotide structure is not required)
• Explain that DNA controls cell function by controlling the production of proteins (some of which are enzymes), antibodies and receptors for neurotransmitters.
• Explain how a protein is made, limited to:
– the gene coding for the protein remains in the nucleus
– mRNA molecules carry a copy of the gene to the cytoplasm
– the mRNA passes through ribosomes
– the ribosome assembles amino acids into protein molecules
– the specific order of amino acids is determined by the sequence ofbases in the mRNA (knowledge of the details of transcription or translation is not required)

• Explain that all body cells in an organism contain the same genes, but many genes in a particular cell are not expressed because the cell only makes the specific proteins it needs.
• Define a haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes, e.g. in gametes.
• Define a diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes, e.g. in body cells.
• State that in a diploid cell, there is a pair of each type of chromosome and in a human diploid cell there are 23 pairs.
• Define mitosis as nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells (details of stages are not required)
• State the role of mitosis in growth, repair of damaged tissues, replacement of cells and asexual reproduction.
• State that the exact duplication of chromosomes occurs before mitosis.
• State that during mitosis, the copies of chromosomes separate, maintaining thechromosome number (details of stages of mitosis are not required)
• Describe stem cells as unspecialised cells that divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells that can become specialised for specific functions.
Month-July
Meiosis and Monohybrid inheritance
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to
• Define meiosis as nuclear division giving rise to cells that are genetically different (details of stages are not required)
• State that meiosis is involved in the production of gametes.
• Define meiosis as reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploidto haploid resulting in genetically different cells (details of stages are not required)
• Explain how meiosis produces variation by forming new combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes (specific details are not required)
• Define genotype as the genetic make-up of an organism in terms of the alleles present.
• Define phenotype as the observable features of an organism
• Define homozygous as having two identical alleles of a particular gene.
• State that two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding.
• Define heterozygous as having two different alleles of a particular gene.
• State that a heterozygous individual will not be pure-breeding
• Define dominant as an allele that is expressed if it is present
• Define recessive as an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present
• Interpret pedigree diagrams for the inheritance of a given characteristic.
• Use genetic diagrams to predict the results of monohybrid crosses and calculate phenotypic ratios, limited to 1:1 and 3:1 ratios.
• Use Punnett squares in crosses which result in more than one genotype to work out and show the possible different genotypes.
• Explain how to use a test cross to identify an unknown genotype
• Explain co-dominance by reference to the inheritance of ABO blood groups phenotypes being A, B, AB and O blood groups and alleles being IA, IB and Io
• Define a sex-linked characteristic as a characteristic in which the gene responsible is located on a sex chromosome and that this makes it more common in one sex than in the other.
• Describe colour blindness as an example of sex linkage.
• Use genetic diagrams to predict the results ofmonohybrid crosses involving co-dominance or sex linkage and calculate phenotypic ratios

• Variation and selection
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to

• Define variation as differences between individuals of the same species
• Distinguish between phenotypic variation and genetic variation
• State that continuous variation results in a range of phenotypes between two extremes, e.g. height in humans
• State that discontinuous variation results in a limited number of phenotypes with no intermediates, e.g. tongue rolling
• Record and present the results of investigations into continuous and discontinuous variation
• Define mutation as genetic change
• State that mutation is the way in which new alleles are formed
• State that ionising radiation and some chemicals increase the rate of mutation

** Month- August**

Continued Variation and selection

Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to

• State that phenotypic variation is caused byboth genetic and environmental factors
• State that discontinuous variation is mostly caused by genes alone, e.g. A, B, AB and O blood groups in humans.
• Define gene mutation as a change in the base sequence of DNA.
• Describe the symptoms of sickle-cell anaemia.
• Explain how a change in the base sequence of the gene for haemoglobin results in abnormal haemoglobin and sickle-shaped red blood cells.
• Use genetic diagrams to show how sickle-cell anaemia is inherited.
• State that people who are heterozygous (HbS HbA) for the sickle-cell allele have a resistance to malaria
• Explain the distribution of the sickle-cell allele in human populations with reference to the distribution of malaria
• Define adaptive feature as an inherited feature that helps an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
• Interpret images or other information about a species to describe its adaptive features
Supplement
• Define adaptive feature as the inherited functional features of an organism that increase its fitness.
• Define fitness as the probability of an organism surviving and reproducing in the environment in which it is found
• Explain the adaptive features of hydrophytes and xerophytes to their environments.
• Describe natural selection with reference to:
– variation within populations
– production of many offspring
– competition for resources
– struggle for survival
– reproduction by individuals that are better adapted to the environment than others
– passing on of their alleles to the next generation.
• Describe selective breeding with reference to:
– selection by humans of individuals with desirable features
– crossing these individuals to produce the next generation
– selection of offspring showing the desirable
features
Supplement
• Describe evolution as the change in adaptive
features of a population over time as the result
of natural selection
• Define the process of adaptation as the
process, resulting from natural selection, by
which populations become more suited to their
environment over many generations

Month- September

Continued Variation and selection
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to
• Describe the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of evolution by natural selection.
• State the differences between natural and artificial selection
• Outline how selective breeding by artificial selection is carried out over many generations to improve crop plants and domesticated animals.

Term exam

Month- October and November
Biotechnology and genetic engineering
Biotechnology
Genetic engineering
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to

• State that bacteria are useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering due to their rapid reproduction rate and their ability to make complex molecules
• Discuss why bacteria are useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering, limited to:
– lack of ethical concerns over their manipulation and growth
– genetic code shared with all other organisms
– presence of plasmids
• Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during production of ethanol for biofuels.
• Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during bread-making.
• Investigate and describe the use of pectinase in fruit juice production.
• Investigate and describe the use of biological washing powders that contain enzymes
Supplement
• Investigate and explain the use of lactase to produce lactose-free milk
• Describe the role of the fungus Penicillium in the production of the antibiotic penicillin
• Explain how fermenters are used in the production of penicillin
Genetic engineering
Core
• Define genetic engineering as changing the genetic material of an organism by removing, changing or inserting individual genes.
• State examples of genetic engineering:
– the insertion of human genes into bacteria to produce human insulin
– the insertion of genes into crop plants to confer resistance to herbicides
– the insertion of genes into crop plants to confer resistance to insect pests
– the insertion of genes into crop plants to provide additional vitamins
Supplement
• Outline genetic engineering using bacterial
production of a human protein as an example, limited to:
– isolation of the DNA making up a human gene using restriction enzymes, forming sticky ends
– cutting of bacterial plasmid DNA with the same restriction enzymes, forming
complementary sticky ends
– insertion of human DNA into bacterial plasmid DNA using DNA ligase to form a
recombinant plasmid
– insertion of plasmid into bacteria (specific detail is not required)
– replication of bacteria containing recombinant plasmids which make human protein as they express the gene
• Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetically modifying crops, such as soya, maize and rice.

Drugs

Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to
Core
• Define a drug as any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body

Medicinal drugs
Core
• Describe the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection
• State that some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics
• State that antibiotics kill bacteria but do not affect viruses
Supplement
• Explain how development of resistant bacteria
such as MRSA can be minimised, limited
to using antibiotics only when essential and
ensuring treatment is completed
• Explain why antibiotics kill bacteria, but do not
affect viruses

Core
• Describe the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection
• State that some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotics
• State that antibiotics kill bacteria but do not affect viruses
Supplement
• Explain how development of resistant bacteria such as MRSA can be minimised, limited to using antibiotics only when essential and ensuring treatment is completed
• Explain why antibiotics kill bacteria, but do not affect viruses

Misused drugs
Core
• Describe the effects of excessive alcohol consumption and abuse of heroin, limited to:
– powerful depressant drugs
– effect on reaction times and self-control
– addiction and withdrawal symptoms
– negative social implications, e.g. crime
• State that injecting heroin can cause infections such as HIV
• State that excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage.
• State that tobacco smoking can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and coronary heart disease.
• Describe the effects on the gas exchange system of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components, limited to carbon monoxide, nicotine and tar.
• State that the liver is the site of break down of alcohol and other toxins
Supplement
• Explain how heroin affects the nervous system, limited to its effect on the function of synapses.
• Discuss the evidence for the link between smoking and lung cancer.
• Discuss the use of hormones to improve sporting performance, limited to testosterone and anabolic steroids

Month- December

Characteristics of living things
Classification
Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to
Core
Describe the characteristics of living organisms by defining the terms:
– movement as an action by an organism causing a change of position or place
– respiration as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and release energy
– sensitivity as the ability to detect and respond to changes in the environment
– growth as a permanent increase in size
– reproduction as the processes that make more of the same kind of organism
– excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials and substances in excess of requirements
– nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development
Supplement
• Define the terms:
– movement as an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
– respiration as the chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules
and release energy for metabolism
– sensitivity as the ability to detect or sense stimuli in the internal or external
environment and to make appropriate responses
– growth as a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both
– excretion as removal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration), toxic materials, and substances in excess of requirements
– nutrition as taking in of materials for energy, growth and development; plants
require light, carbon dioxide, water and ions; animals need organic compounds and ions and usually need water.

Month- January

The kingdoms of living organisms
Viruses
Classifying plants and animals.
Dichotomous keys
Co-ordination and response in plants
Organisms and environment

Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to

Core
• State that organisms can be classified into groups by the features that they share
• Define species as a group of organisms that can reproduce to produce fertile offspring
• Define and describe the binomial system of naming species as an internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of two parts showing the genus and species
Supplement
• Explain that classification systems aim to reflect evolutionary relationships
• Explain that classification is traditionally based on studies of morphology and anatomy
• Explain that the sequences of bases in DNA and of amino acids in proteins are used as a more accurate means of classification
• Explain that organisms which share a more recent ancestor (are more closely related) have base sequences in DNA that are more similar than those that share only a distant ancestor
Core
• List the features in the cells of all living organisms, limited to cytoplasm, cell
membrane and DNA as genetic material
• List the main features used to place animals mand plants into the appropriate kingdoms
• List the main features used to place organisms into groups within the animal kingdom, limited to:
– the main groups of vertebrates: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish
– the main groups of arthropods: myriapods, insects, arachnids, crustaceans
Supplement
• List the features in the cells of all living organisms, limited to ribosomes for protein synthesis and enzymes involved in respiration
• List the main features used to place all organisms into one of the five kingdoms:
Animal, Plant, Fungus, Prokaryote, Protoctist
• List the main features used to place organisms into groups within the plant kingdom, limited to ferns and flowering plants (dicotyledons and
monocotyledons)
• List the features of viruses, limited to protein coat and genetic material
Core
• Construct and use simple dichotomous keys based on easily identifiable features

Tropic responses
Core
• Define gravitropism as a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from gravity
• Define phototropism as a response in which parts of a plant grow towards or away from the direction from which light is coming
• Investigate gravitropism and phototropism in shoots and roots
Supplement
• Explain phototropism and gravitropism of a shoot as examples of the chemical control of plant growth
• Explain the role of auxin in controlling shoot growth, limited to:
– auxin made in shoot tip (only)
– auxin spreads through the plant from the shoot tip
– auxin is unequally distributed in response to light and gravity
– auxin stimulates cell elongation
• Describe the use in weedkillers of the synthetic plant hormone 2,4-D

Energy flow
Core
• State that the Sun is the principal source ofenergy input to biological systems
Supplement
• Describe the flow of energy through living organisms including light energy from the sun and chemical energy in organisms and its eventual transfer to the environment

Food chains and food webs
Core
• Define a food chain as showing the transfer of energy from one organism to the next, beginning with a producer
• State that energy is transferred between organisms in a food chain by ingestion
• Construct simple food chains
• Define a food web as a network of interconnected food chains
• Define producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis
• Define consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms
• State that consumers may be classed as
primary, secondary and tertiary according to their position in a food chain
• Define herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants
• Define carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
• Define decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic material
• Interpret food chains and food webs in terms of identifying producers and consumers.
Supplement
• Describe how energy is transferred between trophic levels
• Define trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain, food web, pyramid of numbers or pyramid of biomass
• Explain why the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another is inefficient
• Explain why food chains usually have fewer than five trophic levels
• Explain why there is a greater efficiency in supplying plants as human food, and that there is a relative inefficiency in feeding crop plants to livestock that will be used as food.
• Identify producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers and quaternary consumers as the trophic levels in food webs, food chains, pyramids of numbers and pyramids of biomass
Core
• Use food chains and food webs to describe the impacts humans have through over-harvesting of food species and through introducing foreign species to a habitat
• Draw, describe and interpret pyramids ofnumbers
Supplement
• Draw, describe and interpret pyramids of biomass
• Discuss the advantages of using a pyramid of biomass rather than a pyramid of numbers to represent a food chain
Nutrient cycles
Core
• Describe the carbon cycle, limited to photosynthesis, respiration, feeding,
decomposition, fossilisation and combustion
• Discuss the effects of the combustion of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the carbon dioxide concentrations in the
atmosphere
• Describe the water cycle, limited to evaporation, transpiration, condensation and
precipitation
Supplement
• Describe the nitrogen cycle in terms of:
– decomposition of plant and animal protein
to ammonium ions
– nitrification
– nitrogen fixation by lightning and bacteria
– absorption of nitrate ions by plants
– production of amino acids and proteins
– feeding and digestion of proteins
– deamination
– denitrification
• State the roles of microorganisms in the nitrogen cycle, limited to decomposition,
nitrification, nitrogen fixation and denitrification (generic names of individual bacteria, e.g. Rhizobium, are not required)

Population size
Core
• Define population as a group of organisms of one species, living in the same area, at the same time
• Identify and state the factors affecting the rate of population growth for a population of an organism, limited to food supply, predation and disease
• Discuss the increase in human population size over the past 250 years and its social and environmental implications
• Interpret graphs and diagrams of human population growth
Supplement
• Define community as all of the populations of different species in an ecosystem
• Define ecosystem as a unit containing the community of organisms and their
environment, interacting together, e.g. a decomposing log, or a lake
• Identify the lag, exponential (log), stationary and death phases in the sigmoid population growth curve for a population growing in an environment with limited resources
• Explain the factors that lead to each phase in the sigmoid curve of population growth, making reference, where appropriate, to the role of limiting factors.

Month- February and March

Pathogens and immunity

Students should know the following as learning outcomes
Students will be able to

• Define pathogen as a disease-causing organism.
• Define transmissible disease as a disease in which the pathogen can be passed from one host to another
• State that the pathogen for a transmissible disease may be transmitted either through direct contact, e.g. through blood or other body fluids, or indirectly, e.g. from contaminated surfaces or food, from animals, or from the air
• State that the body has defences:
– mechanical barriers, limited to skin and hairs in the nose
– chemical barriers, limited to mucus and stomach acid
– cells, limited to phagocytosis and antibody production by white blood cells which can be enhanced by vaccination
Supplement
• State that antibodies lock on to antigens leading to direct destruction of pathogens, or marking of pathogens for destruction by phagocytes
• Explain how each pathogen has its own antigens, which have specific shapes, so
specific antibodies which fit the specific shapes of the antigens are needed
• Define active immunity as defence against a pathogen by antibody production in the body
• Explain that active immunity is gained after an infection by a pathogen, or by vaccination.
• Explain the process of vaccination:
– harmless pathogen given which has antigens
– antigens trigger an immune response by lymphocytes which produce antibodies
– memory cells are produced that give long-term immunity
• Explain the importance of hygienic food preparation, good personal hygiene, waste
disposal and sewage treatment in controlling the spread of disease
• Explain the role of vaccination in controlling the spread of diseases
• Explain that passive immunity is short-term defence against a pathogen by antibodies acquired from another individual, e.g. mother to infant
• State that memory cells are not produced in passive immunity
• Explain the importance of passive immunity for breast-fed infants
• State that some diseases are caused by the immune system targeting and destroying body cells, limited to Type 1 diabetes

Revision for final exams.

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