NIOS 12th Biology | Sudhir

May+June

Taxonomy (Lesson plan)

  • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Protozoa
    • Bacillariophyta
    • Chlorophyta
  • Kingdom Fungi
    • Myxomycetes
    • Phycomycetes
    • Ascomycetes
    • Basidiomycetes
    • Deuteromycetes
    • Lichens and mycorrhizae
  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Bryophyta
    • Pteridophyta
    • Spermatophyta
      • Gymnospermae
      • Angiospermae
  • Kingdom Animalia
    • Classification basis
    • Porifera
    • Cnidaria
    • Aschelmenthes
    • Annelida
    • Arthropoda
    • Mollusca
    • Echinodermata
    • Chordata

July

Root system

  • Characteristics and regions of root
  • Primary structure of dicot and monocot roots
  • Secondary growth in dicot roots
  • Types and modifications of roots
  • Common functions of roots.

Shoot system

  • Characteristics of stem
  • Structure of monocot and dicot stems
  • Difference between dicot and monocot stem
  • Secondary growth in stem
  • Types and modification of stem
  • Functions of stem.
  • Structure and modifications of leaf
  • Internal structure of a typical dicot and monocot leaf
  • Stomata, hair and hydathodes, phyllotaxy.
  • Flower - Parts of flower,
  • Arrangement of various floral parts, placentation, inflorescence
  • Fruit - Definition, structure, major categories

August

Absorption, Transport and Water Loss in Plants

  • Permeability
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Plasmolysis
  • Active and passive absorption and movement
  • Imbibition
  • Water potential
  • Transpiration
  • Guttation
  • Translocation of solutes.

Nutrition in plants - Mineral Nutrition

  • Mineral nutrition
  • Macro and micro nutrients, deficiency symptoms of elements,
  • Modes of nutrition in plants

September

Nitrogen Metabolism

  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Nitrate and ammonia assimilation by plants
  • Amino acid synthesis by plants
  • Nitrogen cycle

Photosynthesis

  • The process and its significance
  • Cloroplast structure and function
  • Photochemical aspects of photosynthesis,
  • Photophosphorylation (cyclic and non-cyclic)
  • C3 and C4 pathways
  • Factors affecting photosynthesis
  • Chemosynthesis
  • Chemiosmotic synthesis.

October

Respiration in Plants

  • Aerobic and anaerobic respiration
  • Respiratory quotient
  • Glycolysis
  • Krebs cycle
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Factors affecting respiration
  • Fermentation
  • Photorespiration
  • Amphibolic Pathway

Animal Nutrition and Digestion

  • Nutrition and its types
  • Digestive system of invertebrate (Cockroach)
  • Digestive system and process in humans
  • Intracellular and intercellular digestion
  • Role of enzymes and hormones in digestion.
  • Digestive disorders

November

Respiration and Elimination of Nitrogenous Wastes

  • Respiratory organs of humans,
  • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation
  • Gaseous transport through blood and tissue respiration
  • Gaseous exchange in animals (earthworm/cockroach),
  • Common respiratory disorders
  • Ammnotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism
  • Urinary system in cockroach and humans
  • Fine structure of mammalian kidney
  • Ultrafiltration and urine formation
  • Role of kidney in osmoregulation
  • Kidney failure, dialysis, kidney transplantation
  • Role of Antidiuretic Hormones (ADH)
  • Role of liver in excretion.
  • Emphysema, Renin-angiotensin and Atrial Antinatriuretic factor.

Circulation of Body Fluids

  • Types of blood circulation
  • Open circulatory system in cockroach
  • Circulatory organs in humans
  • Blood circulation
  • Histology and functions of blood,
  • Blood coagulation
  • Blood transfusion
  • Blood groups
  • Blood pressure
  • Lymph and lymph glands, spleen, immune system
  • Blood related disorders - hypertension, atheroma and arteriosclerosis,
  • ECG, pacemaker

December

Locomotion and Movement

  • Movement and Locomotion
  • Types of movements for locomotion
  • Flagellar movement
  • Muscular movement in animals
  • Structure and function of muscle

Coordination and Control - The Nervous and Endocrine Systems

  • Transmission of nerve impulse
  • Reflex action
  • Sensory receptors and sense organs
  • Central, Peripheral and Sympathetic nervous system
  • Structure and function of brain and spinal cord
  • Hormones
  • Endocrine glands
  • Pheromones
  • Hormonal imbalance and diseases
  • Role of hormones as messengers and regulators - hypothalamohypophyseal axis, feed-back mechanism.
  • The skeletal system
  • Human skeleton
  • Muscular and skeletal disorders,
  • Movement in plants

January

Homeostasis

  • Basic prnciples
  • Regulation of body fluids
  • Feedback mechanisms - positive and negative
  • Thermoregulation

Revision

February

  • Pre boards

March

  • Exams
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