11 As Nios Chemistry July Lessonplan

Instructional Objectives

AS Level

Mole Concept

(a) define and use the terms relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the 12C scale
(b) define and use the term molein terms of the Avogadro constant
(c) analyse mass spectra in terms of isotopic abundances and molecular fragments[knowledge of the working of the mass spectrometer is not required]
(d) calculate the relative atomic mass of an element given the relative abundances of its isotopes, or its mass spectrum
(e) define and use the terms empirical and molecular formulae
(f) calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data or composition by mass
(g) write and/or construct balanced equations
(h) perform calculations, including use of the mole concept, involving:
(i) reacting masses (from formulae and equations)
(ii) volumes of gases (e.g. in the burning of hydrocarbons)
(iii) volumes and concentrations of solutions
When performing calculations, candidates’ answers should reflect the number of significant figures given or asked for in the question.
When rounding up or down, candidates should ensure that significant figures are neither lost unnecessarily nor used beyond what is justified
(i) deduce stoichiometric relationships from calculations such as those in (h)

Atomic Structure

(a) identify and describe protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses
(b) deduce the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields
(c) describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom
(d) deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions given proton and nucleon numbers (and charge)
(e) (i) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number
(ii) distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present
(iii) recognise and use the symbolism xAyfor isotopes, where x is a the nucleon number and y is the proton number
(f) describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals.
(g) describe the shapes of s and p orbitals and d orbitals
(h) state the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and charge), using the convention 1s2, 2s2, 2p6 etc
(i) (i) explain and use the terms ionisation energy and electron affinity
(ii) explain the factors influencing the ionisation energies of elements
(iii) explain the trends in ionisation energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic Table
(j) deduce the electronic configurations of elements from successive ionisation energy data
(k) interpret successive ionisation energy data of an element in terms of the position of that element within the Periodic Table

NIOS

Mole Concept

  • state the need of SI units;
  • list base SI units;
  • explain the relationship between mass and number of particles;
  • define Avogadro’s constant and state its significance;
  • calculate the molar mass of different elements and compounds and
  • define molar volume of gases at STP.
  • define empirical and molecular formulae;
  • differentiate between empirical and molecular formulae;
  • calculate percentage by mass of an element in a compound and also work out empirical formula from the percentage composition;
  • establish relationship between mole, mass and volume;
  • calculate the amount of substances consumed or formed in a chemical reaction using a balanced equation and mole concept, and
  • Explain that the amount of limiting reagent present initially limits the amount of the products formed.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License